The Chenda (Malayalam: ?????) is a cylindrical percussion instrument used widely in the state of Kerala, and Tulu Nadu of Karnataka State in India. In Tulu Nadu it is known as Chande.
The chenda is mainly played in Hindu Temple Festivals and as an accompaniment in the religious art forms of Kerala. The chenda is used as an accompaniment for Kathakali, Koodiyattam, Kannyar Kali, Theyyam and among many forms of dances and rituals in Kerala. It is also played in a dance-drama called Yakshagana which is popular in Tulu Nadu of Karnataka. It is traditionally considered to be an 'Asura Vadyam' which means it cannot go in harmony. Chenda is an unavoidable musical instrument in all form of cultural activities in Kerala.
There are different ways of playing A Chenda, made out of a cylindrical wooden drum, and has a length of 2 feet and a diameter of 1 foot. Both ends are covered (usually with animal's skin). The chenda is suspended from the drummers neck so that it hangs vertically. Using two sticks, the drummer strikes the upper parchment. This instrument is famous for its loud and rigid sound.
The standard drum set we know now exists since 1935. It was 'invented' in the USA, in New Orleans. It consists of a few different parts. These are
2 or 3 tom-toms (or just 'toms')
1 snare drum
1 bass drum
1 ride cymbal
1 crash cymbal (2 on picture)
2 Hi-Hat cymbals (not on picture)
It was in the 16th century that the Europeans took their drums to America. When they tried to conquer The New World, they took their colonists and armies to America. Later, he blacks, living in South America, were not allowed to play and create their own African drums. So they tried to combine drums with an African origin, like the snare and the tom-toms.
1 snare drum
A horizontally placed bass drum
A low Hi-Hat
Chinese temple blocks
In the 20th century, people began to play on such drums. Everybody started to play those African rhythms. And because the beats were played more and more on the cymbals, the size of the cymbals increased. The Chinese toms were replaced for Afro/European drums and the Hi-Hat had been enlarged to make it easy to play with your sticks. So bit by bit the drum set got its shape as it has now.
The guitar's roots are in Spain. Realistically, it cannot be traced back further than the 15th Century. It is thought to have been invented by the people of Malaga. This early instrument was a "four course" guitar, from which the ukulele is derived. The first guitars were very small, and were originally strung with four pair of strings. Each pair was calling a course.
During the Renaissance, the guitar never had the respect the lute enjoyed. It was not considered a serious instrument. The first publication for guitar is thought to have been Alonso Mudarra's "Tres Libros de Musica en Cifras para Vihuela." Eventually, the guitar began to attract players, more publications and music began to appear.
During the During the Baroque period, A fifth course was added. Even more music became available. Its repertoire and the complexity of the music increased.
The fifth course was tuned in one of three ways.
1. A low "A" as it is now.
2. A low "A" plus an octave for the second part of the course
3. Both strings an "A" an octave higher than the modern guitar.
Vitruvius, in his work on architecture (1st century A.D.), describes an organ with balanced keys. Next we learn that Emperor Constantine sent a musical instrument having keys to King Pepin of France in 757 A.D.
The great musical genius, Guido of Arezzo, applied the keyboard to stringed instruments in the first part of the 11th century. Guido's diatonic scale, eight full tones with seven intervals of which two were semitones, was used in the first clavichords, which had 20 keys. There are no reliable records in existence, as to who applied the chromatic scale first. Giuseppe Zarlino added the semitones to his instruments about 1548, but instruments of earlier date have the chromatic scale, as for instance the clavicymbala, some of which had 77 keys to a compass of four octaves.
Mridangam is a percussion instrument from India of ancient origin. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music ensemble.This article is about the wooden double-headed drum of southern India. For the clay double-headed drum of eastern India, see khol.
The mridangam is also played in Carnatic concerts in countries outside of India, including Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. During a percussion ensemble, the mridangam is often accompanied by the ghatam, kanjira, and the morsing. The mridangam is nicknamed as the "King of Percussion".
Panchari Melam is a percussion ensemble, performed during temple festivals in Kerala, India. Panchari Melam (or, simply, panchari), is one of the major forms of chenda melam (ethnic drum ensemble), and is the best-known and most popular kshetram vadyam (temple percussion) genre. Panchari melam, comprising instruments like chenda, ilathalam, kombu and kuzhal, is performed during virtually every temple festival in central Kerala, where it is arguably presented in the most classical manner. Panchari, however, is also traditionally performed, with a touch of subtle regional difference, in north (Malabar) and south-central Kerala (Kochi). Of late, its charm has led to its performance even in deep-south Kerala temples.
Panchari is a six-beat thaalam (taal) with equivalents like Roopakam in south Indian Carnatic music and Daadra in the northern Hindustani classical.
Another chenda melam which comes close to panchari in prominence and grammatical soundness, is Pandi Melam, performed outside temple precincts in general. Other chenda melams, though less popular, are chempata, adanta, anchatanta, dhruvam, chempha, dhruvam, navam, kalpam and ekadasam. Though there are expressional differences between the panchari and the above-mentioned melams (other than pandi), the description of the former is proto-typical for the rest of them.
The modern pianoforte has six major parts (in the following discussion, the numbers in parentheses refer to the accompanying diagram (Diagram #1 below) of the structure of a pianoforte): (1) the frame is usually made of iron. At the rear end is attached the string plate, into which the strings are fastened. In the front is the wrest plank, into which the tuning pins are set. Around these is wound the other end of the strings, and by turning these pins the tension of the strings is regulated. (2) The soundboard, a thin piece of fine-grained spruce placed under the strings, reinforces the tone by means of sympathetic vibration. (3) The strings, made of steel wire, increase in length and thickness from the treble to the bass. The higher pitches are each given two or three strings tuned alike. The lower ones are single strings made heavier by being over spun—that is, wound around with a coil of thin copper wire. (4) The action is the entire mechanism required for propelling the hammers against the strings (see Operation of the Action below). The most visible part of the action is the keyboard, a row of keys manipulated by the fingers. The keys corresponding to the natural tones are made of ivory or plastic; those corresponding to the chromatically altered tones, of ebony or plastic. (5) The pedals are levers pressed down by the feet. The damper, or loud pedal, raises all the dampers so that all the strings struck continue to vibrate even after the keys are released. The soft pedal either throws all the hammers nearer to the strings so that the striking distance is diminished by one-half, or shifts the hammers a little to one side so that only a single string instead of the two or three is struck. Some pianos have a third, or sustaining, pedal that does not raise all the dampers, but keeps raised only those already raised by the keys at the moment this pedal is applied. The use of these pedals can produce subtle changes in tone quality. Many upright pianos have been built in which the application of a pedal interposes a strip of felt between the hammers and strings so that only a very faint sound is produced. (6) According to the shape of the case, pianos are classified as grand, square, and upright. The square form (actually rectangular) is no longer built. For use in private homes it has been entirely superseded by the upright, which takes up far less room. Grand pianos are built in various sizes, from the full concert grand, 2.69 m (8 ft 10 in) long, to the parlor or baby grand, less than 1.8 m (6 ft) long.
Upright pianos include the late 19th-century cottage piano, of which the upright grand is merely a larger form. The modern spinet and console pianos are small uprights related to the cottage piano. In the upright pianos the strings run vertically, or diagonally, from the top to the bottom of the instrument. Uprights and small grands are sometimes over strung; that is, the bass strings are stretched diagonally across the shorter treble strings, thereby gaining extra length and improved tone quality. The combined tension of the strings on a concert grand piano is about 30 tons, on an upright about 14.
The tabla (or tabl, tabla) is a membranophone percussion instrument (similar to bongos) which is often used in Hindustani classical music and in traditional music of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and North Sri Lanka. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres.
The right hand drum is called a tabla and the left hand drum is called a dagga or baya. It is claimed that the term tabla is derived from an Arabic word, tabl, which simply means "drum."The tabla is used in some other Asian musical traditions outside of Indian subcontinent, such as in the Indonesian dangdut genre. Playing technique involves extensive use of the fingers and palms in various configurations to create a wide variety of different sounds and rhythms, reflected in the mnemonic syllables (bol). The heel of the hand is used to apply pressure or in a sliding motion on the larger drum so that the pitch is changed during the sound's decay. In playing tabla there are two ways to play it: band bol and khula bol. In sense of classical music it is termed as "tali" and "khali".
The Veena ( is a plucked stringed instrument originating in ancient India, used mainly in Carnatic classical music and Hindustani classical music. The name is used for several instruments belonging to different families, mainly the Rudra Veena (a zither) and the Saraswati veena (a necked bowl lute) but also to other types of plucked string instruments (Mohan Veena, Ancient Veena etc).
The earliest Veena was an instrument of the harp type whose type survives in the Burmese harp, whereas in the last centuries and nowadays, the word has tended to be applied to instruments of the lute type or even, recently, to certain kinds of guitars developed in India. The more popular sitar is believed to have been derived from a type of Veena which was modified by a Mughal court musician to conform with the tastes of his Persian patrons. A person who plays a Veena is called a vainika.
The violin came into India in its present form as early as the 17th century and Baluswami Dikshitar was the one of the earliest Indian musicians to adapt the western violin and popularise its use in Carnatic Music. It is a relatively new entrant in Hindustani music having probably been here for the past 100 years. The Indian violin is identical to the Western violin but differs from it in tuning and playing position. It is traditionally played in a seated posture, and is held in position with the scroll placed on the artist's ankle and the back of the violin resting on the left shoulder and collar bone or chest. This frees the performer's left hand to play Indian musical ornamentation such as the gamaka. The Indian violin is an important solo instrument, and in South Indian music it is very popular both as a Solo & accompanying instrument.
The violin came into India in its present form as early as the 17th century and Baluswami Dikshitar was the one of the earliest Indian musicians to adapt the western violin and popularise its use in Carnatic Music. It is a relatively new entrant in Hindustani music having probably been here for the past 100 years.
The Indian violin is identical to the Western violin but differs from it in tuning and playing position. It is traditionally played in a seated posture, and is held in position with the scroll placed on the artist's ankle and the back of the violin resting on the left shoulder and collar bone or chest. This frees the performer's left hand to play Indian musical ornamentation such as the gamaka. The Indian violin is an important solo instrument, and in South Indian music it is very popular both as a Solo & accompanying instrument.