Carnatic music or Karnataka samgita or Karnataka samgitam is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. It is one of two main subgenres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions; the other subgenre being Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form because of Persian and Islamic influences in North India. The main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in gayaki (singing) style.
Although there are stylistic differences, the basic elements of sruti (the relative musical pitch), swara (the musical sound of a single note), raga (the mode or melodic formulae), and tala (the rhythmic cycles) form the foundation of improvisation and composition in both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Although improvisation plays an important role, Carnatic music is mainly sung through compositions, especially the kriti (or kirtanam) – a form developed between the 14th and 20th centuries by composers such as Purandara Dasa and the Trinity of Carnatic music. Carnatic music is also usually taught and learnt through compositions.
The birth of the Indian film song may be traced to the advent of India's first sound motion picture in 1931. This film was entitled "Alam Ara" and heralded in a new era in Indian motion pictures. At the same time, it sewed the seeds for a new musical genre.
In the 30's three major film centres developed. These were based in Bombay (AKA Mumbai), Calcutta, and Madras (AKA Chenai). Of theses centres, Bombay was known for the making of films geared for national distribution, while Madras, and Calcutta were known for their regional films.
The number and variety of the film songs was solidly locked into place. The artistic results of making music by formula rather than inspiration is obvious.
This period is also significant for the introduction of the "playback" singer. Whereas the earlier artists acted and sang, the movies of this period introduced the custom of having actors who did not sing their own songs but instead had other singers do this for them. This is the playback singer.
Many notable playback singers came to prominence during this period. The most notable are, Lata Mangeshkar, Hemant Kumar, Mohammed Rafi, Geeta Dutt, and Asha Bhosle. Major music directors are Naushad, C. Ramchandra, S. D. Burman, Shankar - Jaikishan, and Madan Mohan.
Light music is a generic term applied to a mainly British musical style of "light" orchestral music, which originated in the 19th century and continues until the present day. Its heyday occurred during the mid-20th century.The style is a less "serious" form of Western classical music, featuring through-composed, usually shorter orchestral pieces and suites designed to appeal to a wider audience than more serious compositions. The form was especially popular during the formative years of radio broadcasting, with stations such as the BBC Light Programme featuring a playlist largely consisting of light compositions.
Occasionally known as mood music or concert music, light music is often grouped with the easy listening genre, albeit this designation is misleading. Although mainly a British phenomenon, light music was also popular in the United States and in continental Europe, and many compositions in the genre are still familiar through their use as film, radio and television themes.