The standard drum set we know now exists since 1935. It was 'invented' in the USA, in New Orleans. It consists of a few different parts. These are
2 or 3 tom-toms (or just 'toms')
1 snare drum
1 bass drum
1 ride cymbal
1 crash cymbal (2 on picture)
2 Hi-Hat cymbals (not on picture)
It was in the 16th century that the Europeans took their drums to America. When they tried to conquer The New World, they took their colonists and armies to America. Later, he blacks, living in South America, were not allowed to play and create their own African drums. So they tried to combine drums with an African origin, like the snare and the tom-toms.
1 snare drum
A horizontally placed bass drum
A low Hi-Hat
Chinese temple blocks
In the 20th century, people began to play on such drums. Everybody started to play those African rhythms. And because the beats were played more and more on the cymbals, the size of the cymbals increased. The Chinese toms were replaced for Afro/European drums and the Hi-Hat had been enlarged to make it easy to play with your sticks. So bit by bit the drum set got its shape as it has now.
The guitar's roots are in Spain. Realistically, it cannot be traced back further than the 15th Century. It is thought to have been invented by the people of Malaga. This early instrument was a "four course" guitar, from which the ukulele is derived. The first guitars were very small, and were originally strung with four pair of strings. Each pair was calling a course.
During the Renaissance, the guitar never had the respect the lute enjoyed. It was not considered a serious instrument. The first publication for guitar is thought to have been Alonso Mudarra's "Tres Libros de Musica en Cifras para Vihuela." Eventually, the guitar began to attract players, more publications and music began to appear.
During the During the Baroque period, A fifth course was added. Even more music became available. Its repertoire and the complexity of the music increased.
The fifth course was tuned in one of three ways.
1. A low "A" as it is now.
2. A low "A" plus an octave for the second part of the course
3. Both strings an "A" an octave higher than the modern guitar.
Vitruvius, in his work on architecture (1st century A.D.), describes an organ with balanced keys. Next we learn that Emperor Constantine sent a musical instrument having keys to King Pepin of France in 757 A.D.
The great musical genius, Guido of Arezzo, applied the keyboard to stringed instruments in the first part of the 11th century. Guido's diatonic scale, eight full tones with seven intervals of which two were semitones, was used in the first clavichords, which had 20 keys. There are no reliable records in existence, as to who applied the chromatic scale first. Giuseppe Zarlino added the semitones to his instruments about 1548, but instruments of earlier date have the chromatic scale, as for instance the clavicymbala, some of which had 77 keys to a compass of four octaves.
The modern pianoforte has six major parts (in the following discussion, the numbers in parentheses refer to the accompanying diagram (Diagram #1 below) of the structure of a pianoforte): (1) the frame is usually made of iron. At the rear end is attached the string plate, into which the strings are fastened. In the front is the wrest plank, into which the tuning pins are set. Around these is wound the other end of the strings, and by turning these pins the tension of the strings is regulated. (2) The soundboard, a thin piece of fine-grained spruce placed under the strings, reinforces the tone by means of sympathetic vibration. (3) The strings, made of steel wire, increase in length and thickness from the treble to the bass. The higher pitches are each given two or three strings tuned alike. The lower ones are single strings made heavier by being over spun—that is, wound around with a coil of thin copper wire. (4) The action is the entire mechanism required for propelling the hammers against the strings (see Operation of the Action below). The most visible part of the action is the keyboard, a row of keys manipulated by the fingers. The keys corresponding to the natural tones are made of ivory or plastic; those corresponding to the chromatically altered tones, of ebony or plastic. (5) The pedals are levers pressed down by the feet. The damper, or loud pedal, raises all the dampers so that all the strings struck continue to vibrate even after the keys are released. The soft pedal either throws all the hammers nearer to the strings so that the striking distance is diminished by one-half, or shifts the hammers a little to one side so that only a single string instead of the two or three is struck. Some pianos have a third, or sustaining, pedal that does not raise all the dampers, but keeps raised only those already raised by the keys at the moment this pedal is applied. The use of these pedals can produce subtle changes in tone quality. Many upright pianos have been built in which the application of a pedal interposes a strip of felt between the hammers and strings so that only a very faint sound is produced. (6) According to the shape of the case, pianos are classified as grand, square, and upright. The square form (actually rectangular) is no longer built. For use in private homes it has been entirely superseded by the upright, which takes up far less room. Grand pianos are built in various sizes, from the full concert grand, 2.69 m (8 ft 10 in) long, to the parlor or baby grand, less than 1.8 m (6 ft) long.
Upright pianos include the late 19th-century cottage piano, of which the upright grand is merely a larger form. The modern spinet and console pianos are small uprights related to the cottage piano. In the upright pianos the strings run vertically, or diagonally, from the top to the bottom of the instrument. Uprights and small grands are sometimes over strung; that is, the bass strings are stretched diagonally across the shorter treble strings, thereby gaining extra length and improved tone quality. The combined tension of the strings on a concert grand piano is about 30 tons, on an upright about 14.
The violin came into India in its present form as early as the 17th century and Baluswami Dikshitar was the one of the earliest Indian musicians to adapt the western violin and popularise its use in Carnatic Music. It is a relatively new entrant in Hindustani music having probably been here for the past 100 years.
The Indian violin is identical to the Western violin but differs from it in tuning and playing position. It is traditionally played in a seated posture, and is held in position with the scroll placed on the artist's ankle and the back of the violin resting on the left shoulder and collar bone or chest. This frees the performer's left hand to play Indian musical ornamentation such as the gamaka. The Indian violin is an important solo instrument, and in South Indian music it is very popular both as a Solo & accompanying instrument.